How does ESOP work in India? Benefits of ESOPs

How does ESOP work in India? Benefits of ESOPs

Many people are unaware of how ESOP works. An ESOP stands for employee stock ownership plan. It is an ownership plan and interest for employees. Some plans under ESOP are profit-sharing, direct stock, bonuses, tax plans, and many more. These plans have to be bought before the date of exercising. There is 100% security of data. The data can also be customized under data encryption. There are many rules and other regulations which have to be followed by users and employees to grant the ownership plan to employees.

The working of ESOPs 

A grant is given to ESOPs and their employees by an organization. By this grant, the number of shares is specified which can be bought by the employees after certain years, i.e. option period. After this process, the employee has to go through a predefined vesting period. This states that the employee will work for that organization until he can exercise his stock options. 

The motive of the company in offering ESOPs to the employees

High quality and high-status employees are attracted and retained when the organization uses the employee stock ownership plans as a tool. The distribution of the stocks is done in a phased way. The companies have long-term objectives which offer ESOP to their employees. This is how ESOP works by making them stakeholders of the company itself. The pack of compensation in the companies is also made strong through ESOPs. 

Employee’s perspective on ESOPs

 An employee acquires these shares at a nominal rate because of the ESOPs. Later on, they can sell them to make a profit. A very popular example is Google. When Google went public, the founders of Google, Sergey Brin and Larry Page became famous and one of the richest founders worldwide. The employees of stockholders also became millionaires. 

ESOPs- Tax implication 

The term taxation is used very much when the employees and shareholders talk about employee stock ownership plans. 

A prerequisite is a difference between the value of fair market on the exercising day and the price of exercising, which the employee taxes. This taxing of ESOPs is done while exercising the plans.

While selling the shares, it is sold as a capital gain. An employee can buy the shares and later sell them to make a profit. He will become eligible for capital gains tax if he sells the shares for more than the fair market value. This is based on the period exercise of the shares till the date of its sale. They are recognized as long-term capital if sold within 1 year, i.e. 12 months. The share will attract a tax of 10% rate if they are held for more than 12 months. 

Benefits of ESOPs

The organization gives employees stock options as a motivation. This will motivate and encourage the employee to give his 100 percent for the company's share. There are various advantages other than awarding the employees under ESOP options. More amounts are saved in the form of cash, like cash compensation, which prevents the cash's sudden outflow. 

Awarding the employees with the ESOPs will be a greater option for the companies starting or growing their business on a larger scale. This is better than rewarding them in cash. This is how the ESOPs work and gives many benefits to their employees. 

ESOP- rules

An ESOP is a kind of similar to a plan of profit sharing. But rather, it is a beneficial plan for its employees. A trust fund is set up in the company, and then the existing share is bought by setting up the trust fund. An ESOP can also take a loan to buy existing shares or new shares. Taxes are also deducted within certain limits. The allocation of shares is made in the accounts of the employees individually. They can increase the shares in their accounts, also known as vesting. 100% vesting is compulsory by the employees for three to six or seven years, depending upon the type of vesting (cliff or gradual). The employees who left the company have to return the stocks. These stocks are bought at a fair market price by the companies. In private companies, voting by employees is done only on major issues like relocating or closing. On the other hand, in public companies voting is done on all issues by the employees.

Benefits of tax on ESOP

This is how an ESOP works and has major tax benefits- 

  1. Stock contribution is tax-deductible.
  2. Cash contributions are also deductible.
  3. The loan taken by an ESOP to by any shares from the company is also tax-deductible.
  4. Sellers can get a deferral of tax in a C corporation.
  5. The dividends are also tax-deductible.
  6. The employees who have contributed to ESOPs do not have to pay taxes. 


An ESOP is a benefit plan for both the company and the employees. The employer has his full role in deciding how to perform all these options in the best way. The shares or stakes sold before 1 year do not include any tax payment, while the shares sold after 1 year do include taxes. A vesting option is also created to prevent any turnover in draining the employees' plans as retirement plans. Get all your queries answered on Especia.

If you are looking for any Employee stock option plan ESOP services or consultants in Noida, Delhi, Gurgaon or anywhere in India, write to us at Or Call On :(+91)-9711021268 +91-9310165114

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